Lemmer, P., Gunkel, M., Weiland, Y., Mueller, P., Baddeley, D., Kaufmann, R., Urich, A., Eipel, H., Amberger, R., Hausmann, M. and Cremer, C.
Using conventional fluorescent markers for far-field fluorescence localization nanoscopy allows resolution in the 10-nm range. Journal of Microscopy 235: 163-171 (2009).

We present a novel technique of far-field localization nanoscopy combining spectral precision distance microscopy with widely used fluorochromes like the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) derivatives eGFP, EmGFP, Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) and eYFP, synthetic dyes like Alexa 488 and Alexa 568, as well as fluoresceine derivates. Spectral precision distance microscopy allows the surpassing of conventional resolution limits in fluorescence far-field microscopy by precise object localization after the optical isolation of single signals in time. Based on the principles of this technique, our novel nanoscopic method was realized for laser optical precision localization and image reconstruction with highly enhanced optical resolution in intact cells. This allows for spatial assignment of individual fluorescent molecules with nanometre precision. The technique is based on excitation intensity dependent reversible photobleaching of the molecules used combined with fast time sequential imaging under appropriate focusing conditions. A meaningful advantage of the technique is the simple applicability as a universal tool for imaging and investigations to the major part of already available preparations according to standard protocols. Using the above mentioned fluorophores, the positions of single molecules within cellular structures were determined by visible light with an estimated localization precision down to 3 nm; hence distances in the range of 10–30 nm were resolved between individual fluorescent molecules allowing to apply different quantitative structure analysis tools.