Hell, S. W. and Nagorni, M.
4Pi confocal microscopy with alternate interference. Optics Letters 23: 1567-1569 (1998).

We introduce 4Pi confocal microscopy with destructive interference of converging waves. Linear lobe deconvolution as well as nonlinear restoration of 4Pi confocal raw data with their point-spread functions (PSF's) leads to almost-identical images, irrespective of whether the 4Pi confocal PSF relies on constructive or destructive interference. Three-dimensional imaging of microtubules of a mouse fibroblast cell yielded an axial resolution near 100-nm in both cases. Moreover, restoration of 4Pi confocal images of the same object with alternate phases is introduced as a powerful test for (nonlinear) image restoration.