Ferko, M. C., Patterson, B. W. and Butler, P. J.
High-resolution solid modeling of biological samples imaged with 3D fluorescence microscopy. Microscopy Research and Technique 69: 648-655 (2006).

Optical-sectioning, digital fluorescence microscopy provides images representing temporally- and spatially-resolved molecular-scale details of the substructures of living cells. To render such images into solid models for further computational analyses, we have developed an integrated system of image acquisition, processing, and rendering, which includes a new empirical technique to correct for axial distortions inherent in fluorescence microscopy due to refractive index mismatches between microscope objective immersion medium, coverslip glass, and water. This system takes advantage of the capabilities of ultra-high numerical aperture objectives (e.g. total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy) and enables faithful three-dimensional rendering of living cells into solid models amenable to further computational analysis. An example of solid modeling of bovine aortic endothelial cells and their nuclei is presented. Since many cellular level events are temporally and spatially confined, such integrated image acquisition, processing, rendering, and computational analysis, will enable, in silico, the generation of new computational models for cell mechanics and signaling.