Testa, I., Schonle, A., von Middendorff, C., Geisler, C., Medda, R., Wurm, C. A., Stiel, A. C., Jakobs, S., Bossi, M., Eggeling, C., Hell, S. W. and Egner, A.
Nanoscale separation of molecular species based on their rotational mobility. Optics Express 16: 21093-21104 (2008).

We combine far-field fluorescence nanoscopy through serialized recording of switchable emitters with polarization-sensitive fluorescence detection. In addition to imaging with nanoscale spatial resolution, this technique allows determination of the fluorescence anisotropy of each detected dipole emitter and thus an estimate of its rotational mobility. Sub-populations of fluorescent markers can thus be separated based on their interaction with the sample. We applied this new functional nanoscopy to imaging of living mammalian cells.