Hänninen, P., Soukka, J., and Soini, J. T.
Two-photon excitation fluorescence bioassays. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1130: 320-326 (2008).

Application of two-photon excitation of fluorescence in microscopy is one of the major discoveries of the "renaissance" of light microscopy that started in the 1980s. The technique derives its advantages from the biologically "smooth" wavelength of the excitation light and the confinement of the excitation. Difficult, and seemingly nontransparent, samples may be imaged with the technique with good resolution. Although the bioresearch has been concentrating mostly on the positive properties of the technique for imaging, the same properties may be applied successfully to non-imaging bioassays. This article focuses on the development path of two-photon excitation-based assay system.